[ What are Articles ? ] [ Easy Tricks and Examples ]

Table of Contents

What are Articles ?


Definition : What are Articles ?

The words A or An and The are called articles. They come before nouns.

Types : [ What are Articles ? ]

There are two types of articles :
1. Indefinite : A and An
2. Definite : The

(1) Indefinite Articles {A or An} :

These articles are used to make the position indefinite or uncertain of the noun.


Examples :

(1) An old man was seen.
(2) A boy is playing cricket.
(3) There is a cricket player.
(4) A woman is more sensitive than a man.
(5) Why are you making a noise ?

(2) Definite Article {The} :

This article is used to make the position definite or certain of the noun.

Examples :

(1) The rose is the sweetest of all flowers.
(2) He saw the doctor.
(3) Mt. Everest is the highest peak in the world.
(4) Man is the only animal that can laugh.
(5) The robbers looted the bank.

Rules :
Use of Indefinite Articles :

Rule.1 : An is used with the words starting with the vowel.


A is used with the words starting with the consonants.

{ Except a,e,i,o,u }

Examples :

(1) An umbrella is kept there.
(2) A cat is sleeping there.
(3) A player is playing there.
(4) An apple is very useful.
(5) I have an account in the bank.

Rule. 2 : If first letter of a word is consonant and silent in the pronunciation then ‘An’ is used.

Examples :

(1) He is an honest person.
(2) Akbar was an heir of his dynasty.
(3) An hour is the sufficient time.
(4) An honest person always succeeds in life.
(5) An hour is left.

Rule. 3 : There are some words which start with a vowel but
have consonant sound so we cannot use ‘An’ before
these nouns.

Examples :

(1) A European lives in our colony.
(2) There is a university in Meerut.
(3) Now a days, a union is must.
(4) This is a useful thing for us.

Note : The above italic words have consonant sound (yu) so they contain ‘a’ article.

Rule.4 : This rule is associated to short form of the words. If a short form starts with any of these letters {F,H,L,M,N,R,S,X} then ‘an’ is used before the noun.

Examples :

(1) An M.A is a post graduate degree.
(2) An S.P is the police officer.
(3) An L.L.B is a law degree.
(4) An H.M.T is a reliable company.
(5) An X-mas is very auspicious day.

Rule.5 : Before a common noun to suggest the sense of one.

Examples :

(1) Twelve inches make a foot.
(2) There is a fan in the room.
(3) A man is standing on the road.
(4) Twelve things make a dozen.
(5) My father is in a bad mood today.

Rule.6 : To make a common noun from a proper noun. In this case, definite or indefinite article can be used according to the sense.

Examples :
(1) Ajay is a Sherlok Holmes of our class.
(2) Samudragupta was the Napoleon of India.

Rule.7: If we want to make clear the sense of each, every, or per.

Examples :
(1) The doctor advised the patient to take the medicine twice a day.
(2) He studies for two hours a day.
(3) Taking green tea twice a day is a good habit.

Rule.8 : In exclamatory sentences, we can use the articles before singular countable nouns.

Examples :
(1) What a shot it is !
(2) What a beautiful pen it is !
(3) What a beautiful scenery it is !
(4) What a sight it is !
(5) What a beautiful picture it is !

Use of Definite Article :

Rule.1 : When we speak of a particular person or thing in a sentence then article ‘the’ is used.

Examples :
(1) The book is kept there.
(2) The cassette of that movie is available in the market.
(3) The book you mentioned is available in the store.
(4) The pleasant weather is inviting us outside.
(5) This is the book that I have seen in the market.

Rule.2 : We can use the definite article before the names of natural spots as they are unique.

Examples :
(1) The Himalayas are the greatest mountain.
(2) The Ganga is considered the purest river of India.
(3) The Indian Ocean is the third largest ocean in the world.
(4) The Godavari is a south Indian river.
(5) The sun is also a star.

Note : if the reference is to a Single Mountain, the is not used.

Examples :
(1) The Kanchenjunga is the highest peak of the Himalayas in India. (×)
(2) Kanchenjunga is the highest peak of the Himalayas in India. (√)

Rule.3 : We use the definite article before the names of countries which show federation.

Examples :
(1) The United States of America is a powerful country.
(2) The United Kingdom is a group of countries.

Note : [Exception : The Netherlands, The Hague]

Rule.4 : The definite article is used before the names of religious books, newspapers, magazines etc.

Examples :
(1) The Bible is the holy book.
(2) The Danik Jagran is the newspaper in Hindi.
(3) The India Today is an English magazine.

Rule.5 : We can use the definite article before Superlatives adjectives.

Examples :
(1) I am the best.
(2) He is the cleverest.
(3) Gold is the most expensive metal.
(4) Ram is the most intelligent boy in the class.
(5) The cow is the most useful animal.

Rule.6 : If we use comparative adjectives two times in a sentence then we use ‘the’ both times before these adjectives.

Examples :
(1) The more, the merrier.
(2) The sooner, the better.
(3) The higher you go, the colder it is.
(4) The more they get, the more they want.
(5) The deeper you fall, the higher you bounce.

Rule.7 : If some words denote Nationality , Community and Castes then ‘the’ is used before these words.

Examples :
(1) The Australians have a very good cricket team.
(2) The Indians have 22 languages in their country.
(3) The Hindus have many festivals in a year.

Rule.8 : We use ‘the’ before Historical events in the sentence.

Examples :
(1) The First Battle of Panipat was fought in 1526 AD.
(2) The Revolt of 1857 was a spark in the revolution of India.
(3) The Quit India Movement was started in 1942 AD.

Rule.9 : We use ‘the’ before musical instruments in a sentence.

Examples :
(1) I can play the flute very well.
(2) Ustad Amjad Ali Khan plays the Sarod.
(3) The piano is the best musical instrument.

Rule.10 : We use ‘the’ before an adjective when it represents a class of a person in a sentence.

Examples :
(1) The rich should help the poor to come up.
(2) The old should be respected by the young.

Rule.11 : We use ‘the’ before a unit of measurement in a sentence.

Examples :
(1) Cloth is sold by the meter.
(2) Bananas are sold by the dozen.

Rule.12 : If we make a person or a thing very specific then we can use ‘the’ in a sentence.

Examples :
(1) He is the man.
(2) This is the thing to do.

Rule.13 : We can use ‘the’ before the adjectives same and whole and after the adjectives all and both.

Examples :
(1) He is the same person that I saw yesterday.
(2) The whole system is corrupt.
(3) All the boys were very happy.
(4) Both the brothers were present in the meeting.

Rule.14 : Before various Cups and Trophies, we can use ‘the’ as these nouns are specific.

Examples :
(1) Sri lanka has won the Asia Cup.
(2) India won six medals in the Olympic.

Rule.15 : If there is any choice in a sentence then ‘the’ is used before comparative degree.

Examples :

(1) He is the stronger of the two friends.
(2) She is the better of the two sisters.

Omission of article

Rule.1 : Before proper noun, we cannot use the article ‘the’.

Examples :

(1) The New Delhi is the capital of India. (×)
(2) New Delhi is the capital of India. (√)

Rule. 2 : Before material noun and abstract noun, we cannot use the article ‘the’.

Examples :
(1) The building is made up the brick and the stone. (×)
(2) The building is made up brick and stone. (√)
(3) The care of the old is necessary. (×)
(4) Care of the old is necessary. (√)

Note : If the material noun and abstract noun show some specific case, article ‘the’ should be used.

Examples :
(1) The stone of Kota is of good quality.
(2) The respect I have for you is special.

Rule.3 : Before names of diseases, we cannot use ‘the’ as article.
Examples :
(1) AIDS can be cured.
(2) Cancer can be treated.
Rule.4 : We cannot use ‘the’ as article before modes of travel.
Examples :
(1) He will go to Mumbai by air.
(2) Journey by road is very dangerous.

Rule.5 : When two or more adjective qualify the same noun, ‘the’ is used before the first adjective only.

Examples :

(1) It is the Hindi and English Dictionary.

Rule.6 : When two or more adjectives qualify different nouns, ‘the’ is used before each adjective.

Examples :
(1) The inner and the outer wall were both coloured.
(2) He has a black dog and a white dog.


Fill in the blanks with appropriate articles.

1. ……more they get, ……more they want.
2. ……word to the wise is sufficient.
3. She can play……piano.
4. ……wisdom is the gift of God.
5. ……dog is a faithful animal.
6. ……book you want is not here.
7. This is ……historical novel.
8. This is……useful thing.
9. ……bird in the hand is worth two in ……bush.
10. We go to ……church every Sunday.


1. the, the

2. a

3. the

4. none

5. the

6. the

7. an

8. a

9. a, the
10. none

Spotting the Error

Exercise :
1. (A) He / (B) has abandoned / (C) the criminal activities / (D) after returning from jail./ (E) No error
2. (A) The rich cannot accumulate / (B) the wealth without / (C) the co-operation / (D) of poor in the society./(E) No error.
3. (A) He telephoned from public call box / (B) so that the call / (C) would not be backed / (D) to his own address./ (E) No error
4. (A) Why do we not / (B) meet to discuss / (C) this matter in detail / (D) on Monday? / (E) No error
5. (A) While I was travelling / (B) in a train / (C) piece of luggage fell on my / (D) head./(E) No error
6. (A) The teacher / (B) called a last boy / (C) standing / (D) in the line./(E) No error
7. (A) Such the / (B) sad story of / (C) the old man who / (D) lived near the river./(E) No error
8. (A) Unless you take / (B) interest in the studies / (C) you will not succeed / (D) in the competition./(E) No error
9. (A) He died of the malaria / (B) because he had been / (C) suffering from it / (D) for the last five months./ (E) No error
10. (A) He lived / (B) in the three hundred year / (C) old house / (D) in Mumbai. /(E) No error
11. (A) It is delightful to hear / (B) the roaring sound of sea / (C) particularly when / (D) you are alone./(E) No error
12. (A) He does not like / (B) this type of a man / (C) who does nothing but / (D) find out fault in others /(E) No error
13. (A) A man who had / (B) cheated me / (C) was arrested yesterday / (D) by the police./(E) No error
14. (A) The bronze / (B) is not a / (C) very expensive / (D) metal./(E) No error
15. (A) We were amazed to / (B) see him when he shook / (C) the hands with his / (D) old friends in the class /(E) No error
16. (A) The road / (B) to famous monument / (C) passes through a forest / (D) No error.
17. (A) Our Housing Society comprises of / (B) six blocks and / (C) thirty three flats in an area of a about thousand sq. metres / (D) No error.
18. (A) Now that she is living in her own flat, / (B) she cleans the windows / (C) twice a week in the summer and once a week in the winter / (D) No error.
19. (A) With little imagination and enterprise, /(B) the tournament could have been transformed / (C) into a major attraction / (D) No error.
20. (A) These display / (B) the / (C) remarkable variety / (D) No error.
21. (A) If you have faith in Almighty / (B) everything will turn out / (C) to be all right / (D) No error.
22. (A) According to the Bible / (B) it is meek and humble / (C) who shall inherit the earth / (D) No error.
23. (A) I am not wealthy / (B) so I cannot afford / (C) to buy a expensive car / (D) No error.
24. (A) My father is / (B) in bad mood / (C) today / (D) No error.
25. (A) On my request / (B) Lalit introduced me to his friend / (C) who is singer and a scientist / (D) No error.
26. (A) This town isn’t very well known / (B) and there isn’t much to see / (C) so a few tourists come there / (D) No error.
27. (A) He took to / (B) reading Times /(C) for better knowledge of the facts / (D) No error.
28. (A) The accelerating pace of life in our Metropolitan city / (B) has had the tremendous effect / (C) on the culture and life-style of the people / (D) No error.
29. (A) Both the civilians / (B) and army men /(C) joined the First World War / (D) No error.
30. (A) The school is / (B) within hundred yards / (C) from my house / (D) No error.
31. (A) The majority of the computer professionals recommends / (B) that effective measures / (C) should be taken against software piracy / (D) No error.
32. (A) The famous Dr. Chandra / (B) is only dentist / (C) in our village / (D) No error.
33. (A) This candidate lacks / (B) an experience / (C) otherwise he is well qualified / (D) No error.
34. (A) A person I met / (B) in the Theatre / (C) was the playwright himself / (D) No error.
35. (A) The war of Mahabharata /(B) is the full length illustration / (C) of a righteous war / (D) No error.
36. (A) The interviewer asked me / (B) if I know that Kalidas was the greater / (C) than any other poet / (D) No error.
37. (A) The reason we have not been able to pay income tax / (B) is due to fact / (C) that we did not receive pay on time / (D) No error.
38. (A) Even now when I see the spot / (B) I am reminded of an unique incident / (C) that took place several years ago / (D) No error.
39. (A) As soon as the teacher entered / (B) everyone fell / (C) in a silence / (D) No error.
40. (A) As he had taken only a few sips / (B) there was still little water / (C) left in the glass / (D) No error.
41. (A) To perform this experiment / (B) drop little sugar / (C) into a glass of water / (D) No error.
42. (A) It is written in Gita / (B) that God incarnates himself / (C) in times of trouble / (D) No error.
43. (A) Troy was taken by Greeks; / (B) this formed the basis of a story / (C) which has become famous / (D) No error.
44. (A) These facts make it very clear / (B) that he had hand in the murder / (C) though he still pleads innocence / (D) No error.
45. (A) A nationwide survey has brought up an / (B) interesting finding / (C) regarding infant mortality rate in India / (D) No error.
46. (A) The man / (B) cannot live / (C) by bread alone / (D) No error.
47. (A) I go to the bed / (B) at eight / (C) every night / (D) No error.
48. (A) Gangotri has special significance / (B) for the devout as it is considered as / (C) the abode of King Bhagirath who brought the Ganga down to the earth / (D) No error.
49. (A) The recent study has indicated that there / (B) is perceptible change in / (C) the attitudes of the people / (D) No error.
50. (A) The disclosure of the synopsis of Thakkar Commission report / (B) on the assassination of Mrs. Indira Gandhi / (C) has raised several vital questions / (D) No error.
51. (A) He was fascinated by insects / (B) and the more he studied their habits / (C) greater was his fascination / (D) No error.
52. (A) With little patience / (B) you will be able to / (C) cross this hurdle / (D) No error.
53. (A) He did not go / (B) to the city on foot, / (C) he went there by the train / (D) No error.
54. (A) My friend insisted / (B) that I should see the movie / (C) from beginning to the end / (D) No error.
55. (A) Both optimists and pessimists contribute to society; / (B) the optimist invents the Aeroplane / (C) the pessimist parachute / (D) No error.
56. (A) It being rainy day / (B) we decided not to go out / (C) but to stay at home and watch a movie / (D) No error.
57. (A) By all standards / (B) he is a best soldier our military school / (C) has produced so far / (D) No error.
58. (A)No stronger / (B) a figure than his / (C) is prescribed in the history / (D) No error.
59. (A) The old woman placed / (B) kettle on fire and came back / (C) to the bed room / (D) No error.
60. (A) Surdas is often called Milton of India / (B) although unlike Milton, / (C) Surdas had no political ambitions / (D) No error.
61. (A) The singing is both my vocation / (B) and avocation because it a source / (C) of joy and bread for me / (D) No error.
62. (A) Prince Charles is a heir / (B) to the throne / (C) of the Great Britain / (D) No error.
63. (A) He has been sent to the prison / (B) several times but has not shows any sign / (C) of improvement in his conduct / (D) No error.
64. (A) He is / (B) as weak boy / (C) as my brother / (D) No error.
65. (A) These days only rich / (B) can afford the hospitality of the costly nursing homes/ (C) and hospitals coming up all over the country / (D) No error.


1. (e) No error
2. (d) Add ‘the’ before ‘poor’.
3. (a) Add ‘a’ before ‘public call box’.
4. (e) No error
5. (c) Add ‘a’ before ‘piece of luggage’.
6. (b) Replace ‘a’ by ‘the’.
7. (a) Replace ‘the’ by ‘a’.
8. (e) No error
9. (a) Remove ‘the’
10. (b) Replace ‘the’ by ‘a’.
11. (b) Add ‘the’ before ‘sea’.
12. (b) Remove ‘a’.
13. (a) Replace ‘a’ by ‘the’.
14. (a) Remove ‘the’.
15. (c) Remove ‘the’.
16. (b) : Add ‘the’ before ‘famous’.
17. (c) : Add ‘a’ before ‘thousand’.
18. (c) : Delete ‘the’ before ‘summer’ and ‘winter’.
19. (a) : Add ‘a’ before ‘little’.
20. (b) : Replace ‘the’ by ‘a’.
21. (a) : Add ‘the’ before ‘Almighty’.
22. (b) : Add ‘the’ before ‘meek’.
23. (c) : Replace ‘a’ by ‘an’.
24. (b) : Add ‘a’ before ‘bad’.
25. (c) : Add ‘a’ before ‘singer’.
26. (c) : Delete ‘a’ before ‘few’.
27. (b) : Add ‘the’ before ‘Times’.
28. (b) : Replace ‘the’ by ‘a’.
29. (b) : Add ‘the’ before ‘army men’.
30. (b) : Add ‘a’ before ‘hundred’.
31. (a) : Replace ‘the’ by ‘a’ before ‘majority’.
32. (b) : Add ‘the’ before ‘only’.
33. (b) : Delete ‘an’ before ‘experience’.
34. (a) : Replace ‘a’ by ‘the’.
35. (a) : Add ‘the’ before ‘Mahabharata’.
36. (b) : Delete ‘the’ before ‘greater’.
37. (b) : Add ‘the’ before ‘fact’.
38. (b) : Replace ‘an’ by ‘a’.
39. (c) : Delete ‘a’ before ‘silence’.
40. (b) : Add ‘a’ before ‘little’.
41. (b) : Add ‘a’ before ‘little’.
42. (a) : Add ‘the’ before ‘Gita’.
43. (a) : Add ‘the ’ before ‘Greeks’.
44. (b) : Add ‘a’ before ‘hand’.
45. (c) : Add ‘a’ before ‘infant’.
46. (a) : Delete ‘the’ before ‘man’.
47. (a) : Delete ‘the’ before ‘bed’.
48. (a) : Add ‘a’ before ‘special’.
49. (b) : Add ‘a’ before ‘perceptible’.
50. (b) : Add ‘the’ before ‘Thakkra’.
51. (C) : Add ‘the’ before ‘greater’.
52. (a) : Add ‘a’ before ‘little’.
53. (c) : Delete ‘the’ before ‘train’.
54. (c) : Add ‘the’ before ‘beginning’.
55. (c) : Add ‘the’ before ‘parachute’.
56. (a) : Add ‘a’ before ‘rainy’.
57. (b) : Replace ‘a’ by ‘the’ before ‘best’.
58. (c) : Delete ‘the’ before ‘history’.
59. (b) : Add ‘the’ before ‘fire’.
60. (a) : Add ‘the’ before ‘Milton’.
61. (a) : Delete ‘the’ before ‘singing’.
62. (a) : Replace ‘a’ by ‘an’.
63. (a) : Delete ‘the’ before ‘prison’.
64. (b) : Add ‘a’ before ‘boy’.
65. (a) : Add ‘the’ before ‘rich’.


The Sentence

What is a Sentence ?

How many types of a sentence ?

Definition : (The Sentence)

A group of words that makes complete sense, is said to be
the sentence.

Examples :

(1) Ravi plays cricket.
(2) He is reading The Times of India.

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Kinds of Sentences :

There are four kinds of sentences :
(1) Assertive sentence : A sentence that makes a statement,
is said to be the assertive sentence.

Examples :
(1) He is writing a letter.
(2) He does not like music.
(3) I like to play football.
(4)The birds have flown away.
(5) I can do this.

(2) Interrogative sentence : A sentence that asks a question,
is said to be the Interrogative sentence.

Examples :
(1) Why are you making a noise ?
(2) When will they come ?
(3) Were they singing ?
(4) Where is she ?
(5) Why are you so sad ?

(3) Imperative sentence : A sentence that expresses a
command, a request , a proposal or an advice, is said to be
the Imperative sentence.

Examples :
(1) Shut the door.
(2) Please open the door.
(3) Do not make a noise in the class.
(4) Let us go for a walk.
(5) Always speak the truth.

(4) Exclamatory sentences : A sentence that expresses
strong or sudden feeling, is said to be the Exclamatory

Examples :
(1) What a beautiful house it is !
(2) What a beautiful sight !
(3) Ah ! What a pity !
(4) What a shame !
(5) How cruel you are !

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Rearrange the given words to make meaningful sentences :

1. people started / stopped / as / it / raining, / moving out.
2. healthy / are / unless / we / study / we / or / cannot / do /
well / any other / kind of work.
3. improve / in order / our / to / health, / essential / sports
and games / are.
4. child / there / is / play / no / that / to / does not / like.
5. possible / encouraged / children / as much as / should /
to / be / play.
6. to a standstill / fails / life comes / in the cities, / when
7. get / wait / we / for / to / better / things.
8. accept the things / and / them / we / have / we cannot
change / to / act / on.
9. drowning boy / my mother / the / it was / rescued / who.
10. not good / one’s juniors / to insult / is.
11. amongst / all the money / distributed / themselves /
12. of this school / of your school / the building / bigger
than / is / the building.
13. Delhi / Chandigarh / the climate / is / of / like / of /
14. as hard / everybody / they could / tried / as.
15. prize / these children / of / deserves / each / a.
16. hard working person / met / the most / I / is / he / have
/ that.
17. the day / have / been / you / throughout / waiting?
18. of him / so jealous/ wanted him/ to kill/ he was/ that
19. go / we / the / can / world / round / a / by / time / plane
/ in / no.
20. their / welcome / rain / farmers / depend / as / it / crops
/ on.
21. havoc / sometimes / proves / rain / a / too.
22. to blow / the temperature / a cool breeze / began /
bringing down.
23. talk / we mean / when / of / we / pollution, / pollution /
air, water and land.
24. is the / sources of air pollution / one of the biggest /
ever increasing / motor vehicles / number of.
25. can be sent / waste / the / proper / products / a /
drainage system / through.
26. thickly / areas / the factories / from / should be away /
27. wild animals / forests / various / of / are / home / to /
28. energy / is / it / an / light / which / and / gives / heat.
29. a light, / when / night / becomes bright as day / we
switch on.
30. they / electricity / fans / and / run on / give / of summer
/ cool air / in the heat.
31. room heaters / to keep us warm / in the cold / help / of
32. invention / was / telegraphy / the / power / first / to /
electric / use.
33. telephone / the / this / invention / led / to / of / the.
34. children / should be kept / all electric goods / of small /
out of the reach.
35. may / works / he / that / so / succeed / hard / he.


1. As it stopped raining, people started moving out.
2. Unless we are healthy we cannot study or do any other
kind of work well.
3. In order to improve our health, sports and games are
4. There is no child that does not like to play.
5. Children should be encouraged to play as much as
6. In the cities, life comes to a standstill when power fails.
7. We wait for things to get better.




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8. We have to accept the things we cannot change and act
on them.
9. It was my brother who rescued the drowning boy.
10. To insult one’s juniors is not good.
11. They distributed all the money amongst themselves.
12. The building of this school is bigger than the building
of your school.
13. The climate of Delhi is like that of Chandigarh.
14. Everybody tried as hard as they could.
15. Each of these children deserves a prize.
16. He is the most hard working person that I have met.
17. Have you been waiting throughout the day ?
18. He was so jealous of him that he wanted to kill him.
19. We can go round the world by a plane in no time.
20. Farmers welcome rain as their crops depend on it.
21. Sometimes rain proves a havoc too.
22. A cool breeze began to blow bringing down the
23. When we talk of pollution, we mean air, water and
land pollution.
24. One of the biggest sources of air pollution is the ever
increasing number of motor vehicles.
25. The waste products can be sent through a proper
drainage system.
26. The factories should be away from thickly populated
27. Forests are home to various kinds of wild animals.
28. It is an energy which gives light and heat.
29. When we switch on a light, night becomes bright as
30. Fans runs on electricity and they give cool air in the
heat of summer.
31. In the cold of winter, room heaters help to keep us
32. Telegraphy was the first invention to use electric
33. This led to the invention of the telephone.
34. All electric goods should be kept out of the reach of
small children.
35. He works hard so that he may succeed.



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Clauses are defined as the group of words that have a subject and a predicate. It is a part of sentence that contains a subject and a finite verb.

Examples :

(1) I am going home.

(2) Sheela speaks loudly.

In the above examples, ‘I’ and ‘Sheela’ are the subject, while ‘going’ and ‘speaks’ are the finite verb.

Kinds of Clauses

There are three kinds of clauses that are given below.

(1) Principal Clause

(2) Coordinate Clause

(3) Subordinate Clause

(1) Principal Clause : Principal clause is the clause, that requires no conjunction. It can stand alone as a sentence. It is also called independent clause as it does not depend on another clauses.

Examples :

(1) I met a friend who helped me a lot.

(2) I saw a man who was crying.

(2) Coordinate Clause : Coordinate clause is an independent clause that joins two principal clauses often with a coordinating conjunction such as and, but, or both, yet, still etc.

Examples :

(1) I will go home and he will go to work.

(2) He is poor but he is very honest.

(3) Subordinate Clause : Subordinate clause / Dependent clause is the clause that starts with a conjunction. It cannot stand alone as a complete sentence as it depends on the other clause to give a complete meaning.

Examples :

(1) They contacted the customer who had not paid the bill.

(2) Though he was ill, he went to school.

Subordinate clause is further classified into three categories on the basis of their function.

(A) Noun Clause

(B) Adjective Clause

(C) Adverb Clause

(A) Noun Clause : Noun clauses are those clauses that perform the function of a noun in a sentence. It is also called nominal clauses.

Noun clauses are used

(1) As a subject

(2) As an object

(3) As an object of a preposition

(4) As a predicative nominative

Functions of a noun clause are as follows…

Noun clause as a subject of the verb :

Examples :

(1) Whatever you do to me, will be forgiven.

(2) She asked me where I was going.

In the above examples, the bold part of the sentences used as the subject of the sentences.

Noun clause as an object of the verb :

Examples :

(1) I don’t understand what he is doing.

(2) She told me that she would resign.

In the above examples, the bold part used as the object of the verb ‘understand’ and ‘told’.

Noun clause as an object of the preposition :

Examples :

(1) Please listen to what he says.

(2) I find no sense in what you spoke to her.

The bold part of the above examples, functioning as the object of the preposition ‘to’ and ‘in’.

Noun clause as a predicative nominative :

Examples :

(1) The biggest problem in life is that people take it so seriously.

(2) It is what I mean.

The bold part of the above examples is a dependent clause which is functioning as a predicative nominative for the subject.

(B) Adjective Clause : Adjective clause does the work of an adjective. It qualifies a noun or a pronoun in the principal or any other subordinate clause.

Study the following examples carefully…..

(1) He is the man, who is honest. (Qualifying the noun ‘man’)

(2) The time, when he will come, is not certain. (Qualifying the noun ‘time’)

(3) Those, who are honest, succeed in life. (Qualifying the pronoun ‘those’)

(4) I gave him the pen, which I bought for myself. (Qualifying the noun ‘pen’)

(C) Adverb Clause : An Adverb clause is a subordinate clause that does the work of an adverb. It, therefore, modifies some adjective or verb.

Adverb clauses are classified as follows….

Adverb Clause of Time : An adverb clause of time shows when something happens. These clauses are introduced by conjunctions of time such as ‘when’ as, while, before, after, by the time, as soon as, until, till, whenever, since, etc.

Examples :

(1) I get up before the Sun rises.

(2) She cooked after her husband went to market.

Adverb Clause of Condition : Adverb clause of condition describes the condition under which the action takes place in the sentence. These clauses are introduced by subordinating conjunction ‘if, unless, on condition that, provided, in case, etc.

Examples :

(1) I will go if he comes.

(2) You can’t pass unless you study sincerely.

Adverb Clause of Purpose : Adverb clause of purpose tells about the purpose which the verb is addressing.

These clauses are introduced by subordinating conjunctions ‘that, so that, in order that and lest.’

Examples :

(1) He worked hard so that he could succeed.

(2) Run fast lest you should miss the train.

Adverb Clause of Place : Adverb clause of place tells where the action described by the main verb takes place. These clauses are introduced by conjunctions ‘where, and ‘wherever’.

Examples :

(1) This is the room, where I lived in.

(2) This is the hotel, where she was murdered.







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