50 Amazing Points of United Nations UNO

50 Amazing Points of United Nations UNO

Table of Contents

50 Amazing Points of United Nations UNO

United Nations

  • The name ‘United Nations’ was adopted by the suggestion of the US President F.D.Rooswelt.
  • To prepare the format of the UN, a meeting of the prominent countries held from 21st August to 7th October, 1944 in Washington.
  • The UNO was formed on 24th October 1945.
  • The charter of the UN was signed on 26th June 1945 by representatives of 50 nations, though the founder member countries were 51. Later on Poland signed and become the 51st founder member.
  • At present There are 193 countries in UNO. The latest country is the republic of South Sudan. This was admitted on 14th July 2011.
  • The Preamble of the Charter was the work of Field Marshal Smuts.
  • The Head Quarter of the UN is situated in New York (USA).
  • The main office of the UN was built in 1952 where the first meeting of The General Assembly was held in 1952.
  • The UN Charter is the constitution of the UN. It contains the aim and objectives of the UN.
  • White UN emblem (two bent olive branches open at the top and in between them there is a world map) on a light blue background.
50 Amazing Points of United Nations UNO
  • The official languages of the UN are English, French, Chinese, Russian, Arabic and Spanish but the working languages are English and French only.
  • International Court of Justice sits at the Hague (Netherlands) , while all other organs of the UN are situated in New York (USA).
  • The Security Council consists of 15 members, each of which has one representative and one vote.
  • There are 5 permanent and 10 non – permanent members of the Security Council. The non- permanent members are elected for a 2 year term by two-thirds majority of the General Assembly.
  • The five permanent members are: USA, Russia, UK, France and China.
  • The proverb ‘Policeman of the world’ is used for the Security Council.
  • Only the permanent members have the right to veto.
  • There are six parts of the UNO: General Assembly (GA), Security Council (SC), Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC), Trusteeship Council (TC), International Court of Justice and The Secretariat.
50 Amazing Points of United Nations UNO

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Six Parts of UNO

[1] General Assembly (GA) or United Nations General Assembly [UNGA]

The UNGA is a principal component of the United Nations. It is the main governing body of the organisation and is also the most representative body in the UN. 

  • All the members of the UN are represented in the UNGA, which is sometimes referred to as simply the GA. Hence, it has 193 members (all the UN member countries). [As on 9th October 2023]
  • It meets annually in its headquarters in New York City, generally in the month of September. It can also meet at other times according to the need.
  • The UNGA is headed by its President, who is elected for a term of one year.
  • It is sometimes called the parliament of the world.
  • The UNGA deliberates and decides on important matters such as peace and security, and other international issues.
  • It also decides on the admission of new members.
  • Decisions are taken by voting. Generally, a simple majority is considered but in case of important decisions, a two-thirds majority is considered. Each member has one vote.
  • Unlike the Security Council, there is no veto power bestowed to anyone.
  • In 1953, Vijaya Lakshmi Pandit became the eight President of the UNGA, the only Indian GA President to date.
50 Amazing Points of United Nations UNO

[2]   United Nations Security Council {UNSC}

The UNSC was established keeping in mind certain key features and powers. Given below are the functions and powers of the United Nations Security Council:

  • The most important function of the UNSC is maintaining peace and security at the international level. It takes the lead in determining the existence of a threat to peace or act of aggression.
  • Apart from maintaining peace, the Security Council can also deploy UN peacekeeping operations and impose sanctions on states.
  • The UNSC can also impose diplomatic relations severance, financial restrictions and penalties, blockades and even collective military action if required.
50 Amazing Points of United Nations UNO

UNSC Members

There are permanent and non-permanent members of the United Nations Security Council.

  • A total of 15 members are there in the Council, out of which 5 are permanent and 10 are not permanent.
  • The five permanent members include China, France, the Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States.
  • The non-permanent members are elected for two-year terms by the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA).
  • Five non-permanent members of the UNSC are replaced every year.
  • The members are selected from all the regions of the world. Three members are from Africa, while Asia, Western Europe, Latin America and the Caribbean have two members each. Three members are from African group, 2 members are from Asia-Pacific group, 2 members from Latin America and Caribbean group,  2 members from Western Europe group and 1 from Eastern Europe group.

The First Session of the UN Council was held in London on 17th January 1947. The five permanent members are given ‘great power unanimity’ referred to as the veto power, which means if any of these countries veto a resolution it can’t be passed even if it has the 9 votes needed.

50 Amazing Points of United Nations UNO

Roadblocks in Getting a Permanent Seat at UNSC

  • Although it may seem like a simple process, it is made difficult by the objections of certain permanent members of the Security Council. China, in particular, has been blocking India’s push for a permanent seat at the Council. China believes that granting India a permanent seat at the UNSC will lead to Indian interests being of paramount importance in the geopolitics of the subcontinent, a sentiment echoed by its ally, Pakistan.
50 Amazing Points of United Nations UNO

[3] Economic and Social Council {ECOSOC}


ECOSOC plays a very important role in the UN system.

  • It plays the important role of acting as a link between the diverse body of agencies, conventions and organizations within the UN.
  • ECOSOC plays a leading role in identifying emerging challenges, encouraging innovation, and attaining a balanced integration of the three pillars of sustainable development—economic, social and environmental.
  • It acts as a gateway for UN partnership & participation by the rest of the world.
  • It is an international meeting point for governments, leaders, academicians, policymakers, parliamentarians, NGOs, etc.
50 Amazing Points of United Nations UNO

ECOSOC Members

The ECOSOC has 54 members that are elected by the UNGA. India is currently a member and its term expires in December 2020. Each member has one vote and voting is done by a simple majority. ECOSOC Presidency is for a one-year term. 

50 Amazing Points of United Nations UNO

[4] Trusteeship Council

  • It was established in 1945 by the UN Charter, under Chapter XIII.
  • Trusteeship is a non-self-governing territory placed under an administrative authority by the Trusteeship Council of the United Nations.
  • It had to provide international supervision for 11 Trust Territories that had been placed under the administration of seven Member States, and ensure that adequate steps were taken to prepare the Territories for self-government and independence.
50 Amazing Points of United Nations UNO

[5]  International Court of Justice (ICJ)

  • The International Court of Justice is the principal judicial organ of the United Nations. It was established in June 1945 by the Charter of the United Nations and began work in April 1946.
  • The ICJ is the successor of the Permanent Court of International Justice (PCIJ), which was established by the League of Nations in 1920.
50 Amazing Points of United Nations UNO

[6] Secretariat

  • The Secretariat comprises the Secretary-General and tens of thousands of international UN staff members who carry out the day-to-day work of the UN as mandated by the General Assembly and the Organization’s other principal organs.
  • The Secretary-General is chief administrative officer of the Organization, appointed by the General Assembly on the recommendation of the Security Council for a five-year, renewable term.
    • The UNGA has also appointed Antonio Guterres as the ninth UN Secretary General (UNSG)for a second term beginning 1st January, 2022 and ending on 31st December, 2026.
  • UN staff members are recruited internationally and locally, and work in duty stations and on peacekeeping missions all around the world.
50 Amazing Points of United Nations UNO

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Funds and Programmes


    The United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF),originally known as the United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund, was created by the United Nations General Assembly in 1946, to provide emergency food and healthcare to children and mothers in countries that had been devastated by World War II.

  • In 1950,UNICEF’s mandate was extended to address the long-term needs of children and women in developing countries.
  • In 1953, it became a permanent part of the United Nations System, and the words “international” and “emergency” were dropped from the organization’s name, though it retained the original acronym, “UNICEF”.
  • Executive Board: A 36-member board establishes policies, approves programs and oversees administrative and financial plans. The members are government representatives who are elected by the United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC), usually for three-year terms.
  • UNICEF relies on contributions from governments and private donors.
  • UNICEF’s Supply Division is based in Copenhagen (Denmark) and serves as the primary point of distribution for such essential items as vaccines, antiretroviral medicines for children and mothers with HIV, nutritional supplements, emergency shelters, family reunification, and educational supplies.
50 Amazing Points of United Nations UNO


The United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA),formerly the United Nations Fund for Population Activities.

The UN Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) establishes its mandate.

UNFPA works directly to टैकल Sustainable Development Goals on health (SDG3), education (SDG4) and gender equality (SDG5)

Its mission is to deliver a world where every pregnancy is wanted, ‘every childbirth is safe’ and every young person’s potential is fulfilled.

In 2018, UNFPA launched efforts to achieve three transformative results, ambitions that promise to change the world for every man, woman and young person:

Ending unmet need for family planning

Ending preventable maternal death

Ending gender-based violence and harmful practices

50 Amazing Points of United Nations UNO


The United Nations Development Programmes (UNDP) is the UN’s global development network.

UNDP was established in 1965 by the General Assembly of the United Nations.

It provides expert advice, training and grants support to developing countries, with increasing emphasis on assistance to the least developed countries. The UNDP Executive Board is made up of representatives from 36 countries around the world who serve on a rotating basis.

50 Amazing Points of United Nations UNO


The United Nations Environment Programmes (UN Environment) is a global environmental authority that sets the global environmental agenda, promotes the coherent implementation of the environmental dimension of sustainable development within the United Nations system.

It was founded by UN General Assembly as a result of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment (Stockholm Conference) in June 1972.

UNEP and World Meteorological Organization (WMO)established Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in 1988 to assess climate change based on the latest science.

Since its founding, the UNEP has played a key role for the development of multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs). The secretariats for the following nine MEAs are currently hosted by UNEP:

Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD)

Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES)

Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS)

Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer

Minamata Convention on Mercury

50 Amazing Points of United Nations UNO


World Food Programmes (WFP)is the leading humanitarian organization saving lives and changing lives, delivering food assistance in emergencies and working with communities to improve nutrition and build resilience.

The WFP was established in 1963 by the FAO (The Food and Agriculture Organization)and the United Nations General Assembly.

50 Amazing Points of United Nations UNO


In 1945, Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) was created In Quebec City, Canada, by the first session of the newly created United Nations.

FAO is a specialized agency of the United Nations that leads international efforts to defeat hunger.

FAO is also a source of knowledge and information, and helps developing countries in transition modernize and improve agriculture, forestry and fisheries practices, ensuring good nutrition and food security for all.

50 Amazing Points of United Nations UNO


Under Chicago Convention, the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) was established in 1944, as a UN specialized agency.

It manages the administration and governance of the Convention on International Civil Aviation (Chicago Convention).

It provides the principles and techniques of international air navigation and fosters the planning and development of international air transport to ensure safe and orderly growth.

50 Amazing Points of United Nations UNO


The International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD)was established as an international financial institution in 1977 through United Nations General Assembly Resolution as one of the major outcomes of the 1974–World Food Conference.

This conference was organized by the United Nations in response to the food crises of the early 1970s, when global food shortages were causing widespread famine and malnutrition, primarily in the Sahelian countries of Africa.

It was realized that food insecurity and famine were not so much failures in food production but structural problems relating to poverty.

50 Amazing Points of United Nations UNO


The International Labour Organization (ILO) is a United Nations agency whose mandate is to advance social justice and promote decent work by setting international labour standards.

It sets international labour standards, promotes rights at work and encourages decent employment opportunities, the enhancement of social protection and the strengthening of dialogue on work-related issues.

By signing of the United Nation agreement whereby the ILO became the first United Nations specialized agency in 1946.

The Organization won the Nobel Peace Prize on its 50th anniversary in 1969 for pursuing decent work and justice for workers.

50 Amazing Points of United Nations UNO

World Bank

UN Monetary and Financial Conference(1944, also called Bretton Woods Conference), was held to regulate the international monetary and financial order after the conclusion of World War II. It resulted in foundation of IBRD in 1945. IBRD is the founding institution of World Bank.


50 Amazing Points of United Nations UNO


The International Maritime Organization (IMO) – is the United Nations specialized agency with responsibility for the safety and security of shipping and the prevention of marine and atmospheric pollution by ships.


International Telecommunication Union (ITU)is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) that is responsible for issues that concern information and communication technologies (ICT). It is the oldest among all the specialised agencies of UN.

It was founded in 1865 and based in Geneva, Switzerland. It works on the principle of international cooperation between governments (Member States) and the private sector (Sector Members, Associates and Academia).

50 Amazing Points of United Nations UNO


United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)was founded in 1945 to develop the “intellectual and moral solidarity of mankind” as a means of building lasting peace. It is located in Paris (France).

In this spirit, UNESCO develops educational tools to help people live as global citizens free of hate and intolerance.

By promoting cultural heritage and the equal dignity of all cultures, UNESCO strengthens bonds among nations.


50 Amazing Points of United Nations UNO


United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO)promotes industrial development for poverty reduction, inclusive globalisation and environmental sustainability.


50 Amazing Points of United Nations UNO


The World Health Organization (WHO)is the United Nations’ specialized agency for health.

It was established in 1948, and is headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland.

It is an inter-governmental organization and works in collaboration with its Member States usually through the Ministries of Health.

The World Health Organization (WHO) is responsible for

providing leadership on global health matters,

shaping the health research agenda,

setting norms and standards,

providing evidence-based policy options,

providing technical support to countries,

and monitoring and assessing health trends.


50 Amazing Points of United Nations UNO


UNCTAD supports developing countries to access the benefits of a globalized economy more fairly and effectively. It helps to use trade, investment, finance, and technology as vehicles for inclusive and sustainable development.


United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC)is a global leader in the fight against illicit drugs and international crime.

It was established in 1997through a merger between the United Nations Drug Control Programmes and the Centre for International Crime Prevention.


The office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) was created in 1950, during the aftermath of the Second World War, to help millions of Europeans who had fled or lost their homes.

In 1954, UNHCR won the Nobel Peace Prize for its groundbreaking work in Europe.

The start of the 21stcentury has seen UNHCR help with major refugee crises in Africa, the Middle East and Asia.

It also uses its expertise to help many internally displaced by conflict and expanded its role in helping stateless people.


UN Monetary and Financial Conference(1944, also called Bretton Woods Conference), Bretton Woods, New Hampshire, United States was held to regulate the international monetary and financial order after the conclusion of World War II.

It resulted in foundation of International Monetary Fund (IMF) in 1945.


50 Amazing Points of United Nations UNO

Secretary Generals of UNO

  • (1) Trigve Li Norway (1946-1952)
  • (2) Dag Hammarskjoeld Sweden (1953-1961)
  • (3) U-Thant Myanmar (1961-1971)
  • (4) Kurt Waldheim Austria (1972-1982)
  • (5) Jevier Perez Peru (1982-1991)
  • (6) Boutros Ghali Egypt (1992-1996)
  • (7) Kofi Annan Ghana (1997-2006)
  • (8) Ban Ki Moon Korea (2007-2016)
  • (9) Antonio Guterres (1 January, 2017- ……)
50 Amazing Points of United Nations UNO

World Organisations

  • World Food Programmes (WFP) – Italy (Rome)
  • United Nations Development Programmes (UNDP) – New York (USA)
  • United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund (UNICEF) – New York (USA)
  • European Space Research Organization (ESRO) – Paris (France)
  • Commonwealth – London (Britain)
  • Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) – Paris (France)
  • Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) – Vienna (Austria)
  • International Olympic Committee (IOC) – Lusane
  • United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) – Geneva
  • United Nations Industrial Development Organisation (UNIDO) – Vienna (Austria)
  • International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) – Vienna (Austria)
  • European Energy Commission (EEC) – Geneva
  • Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) – Rome (Italy)
  • International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) – Rome
  • International Labour Organisation (ILO) – Geneva
  • International Monetary Fund (IMF) – Washington
  • International Telecommunication Union (ITU) – Geneva
  • United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) – Paris
  • World Health Organisation (WHO) – Geneva
  • World Meteorological Organisation (WMO) – Geneva
  • European Free Trade Association (EFTA) – Geneva
  • International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) – Washington
  • Organisation of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) – Paris
  • General Agreement on Tariffs & Trade(GATT) – Geneva
  • Asian Development Bank (ADB) – Manila (Philippines)
  • Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) – Jakarta (Indonesia)
  • North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) – Brussels (Belgium)
  • South Asian Association for Regional Corporation (SAARC) – Kathmandu (Nepal)
  • United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) – Nairobi(Kenya)
  • International Police (INTERPOLE) – Lyons (France)
  • World Trade Organisation (WTO) – Geneva
50 Amazing Points of United Nations UNO

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