40 Amazing Geography Points Delhi Police

40 Amazing Geography Points Delhi Police 
40 Amazing Geography Points Delhi Police 

GEOGRAPHY

The Indian Subcontinent: Position, Extent and Physical Features Location of the Sub Continent

  • Mainland of the Indian subcontinent, comprising India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal and Bhutan extends between 8°4’ N and 37°6’ N latitudes and between 68°7’ E and 97°25’ E longitudes.
  • If the sixth country of this subcontinent Sri Lanka, is included, then it starts from 6° N latitude.

Size and Extend of Subcontinent

  • Total area of the Indian subcontinent is 44.9 lakh sq. km i.e. India 32,87,263 sq. km. Pakistan 7,96,095 sq. km. Bangladesh 1,48,393 sq. km. Nepal 1,47,181 sq km. Bhutan 46,500 sq. km., and Srilanka 65,610 sq. km. From North to South. this subcontinent stretches over 3,200 km and from east to west it is 3,000 km. 82°30’ E meridian helps in calculating the Indian Standard Time (IST ) which is 5 hours 30 minutes ahead of the Greenwich Mean Time (GMT),
  • This meridian (82 ½ ° E) dictates time in Sri Lanka,  Nepal also. 

40 Amazing Geography Points Delhi Police 

Political Divisions of India

  • India is divided into 28 States and 8 Union Territories. (According to 2023)

Position and Extent of India and its Location Advantage

  • India forms part of the large continental l and mass of Eurasia.
  • It is located on one of the peninsulas of Southern Asia. The country extends from Kashmir in north to Kanyakumari in the south.
  • The Arabian sea and the Bay of Bengal are situated in western and eastern side of peninsular India respectively.
  • The latitudinal extent of the country is from 8°4’ North to 37°6’ North country measures from 68°7’ E to 97°25’ E. The location of the country is in the northern and the eastern hemispheres.
  • The importance of location of India is that it is located on the world’s major sea routes.
  • Due to its location, India has maritime contacts with south-west Asia and Africa on the west and south-east Asia in the east. Its location has given India an advantage of the route of the Suez Canal for trade with North America and Europe.
40 Amazing Geography Points Delhi Police

Size of India ( In terms of area and population )

  • India is the seventh largest country ( in terms of area ) in the world. ( Russia, Canada, China, USA, Brazil, Australia, India, Argentina)
  • The area of India is about 3.28 million sq.km.
  • The area of India is nearly equal to the area of the continent of Europe excluding Russia.
  • India is eight times as large as Japan, India ranks as the second largest country in terms of population ( next to China only).
  • China, India, USA, Indonesia, Brazil, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Russia are populated countries in decreasing order.
  • No continent of the world except Asia has a largest population than that of India.
  • India contains about one-sixth of the total population of the world.

Physical Divisions of the Indian Subcontinent

  • A chain of high mountains radiate out from the Pamir Knot which lies just in the north of India.
  • In these mountains the Hindukush, the Sulaiman and the Kirthar in the east and the Himalayas in the west separate the Indian subcontinent from rest of Asia.
  • Indian subcontinent can be divided into following physical divisions:

    The Great Mountain Wall of the North

    The Great Northern plains

    The Great Peninsular Plateau

    The Coastal Plains

    The Great Indian Desert

    The Island Groups

40 Amazing Geography Points Delhi Police 

The Great Mountain wall of the North

  • The Himalayas, the highest mountain wall of the world, are situated on the northern boundary of India like an arc.
  • From west to east the Himalayas are 2500 km long. The average breadth of the Himalayas is between 250 km to 400 km.
  • Mount Everest, the highest peak in the world, lies in these mountains in Nepal. (8850 m)

Division of the Himalayas

The Himalayas consist of three parallel mountain ranges :

(1) The greater Himalayas

(2) The Lesser Himalayas and

(3) The Outer Himalayas

40 Amazing Geography Points Delhi Police 

The Greater Himalayas (or Himadri)

  • This is the loftiest of the three ranges of Himalayas. Mount Everest lies in this range.
  • These snow-covered mountains give birth to many glaciers.
  • The Ganga originates from this glacier.

The Lesser Himalayas (or the Himachal Himalayas)

  • South of the Greater Himalayas, the range also lies parallel to it from west to east. This ranges 60 to 80 km wide and its average height ranges between 3500 to 4500 metres.
  • Tourist centres like Shimla, Mussorie and Nainital are situated in this range.

The outer Himalayas ( or Shiwaliks)

  • This is the southernmost and the third parallel range of the Himalayas with an average height of 900 to 1200 metres.
  • Its breadth is only 10 to 50 km. Shiwalik range is broader in the west.
40 Amazing Geography Points Delhi Police 

The Great Northern plains

  • The northern plains are divided into three sub-divisions. These are the Punjab and Haryana plains. The Ganga plains and the Brahamaputra valley.
  • The Ganga plains form the largest lowland drained by the Ganga and its tributaries.
  • The Yamuna is the most important tributary of the Ganga.
  • The Ghaghara, the Gandak, the Kosi and the Tista are other tributaries of the Ganga.
  • The Sone , the Damodar are tributaries of the Ganga while the Chambal and the Betwa are tributaries of the Yamuna from the peninsular plateau.
  • The Ganga plain has an extremely gentle slope. Parts of the plain are subject to floods in the rainy season. In the lower course, the Ganga divides itself into tributaries to form a large delta along with the Brahmaputra.
  • The Punjab and Haryana plains represent a part of the India basin.
  • A low watershed separates these plains from the Ganga plains.

The Ganga Peninsular Plateau

  • Anamudi or Anaimudi (2695 m) is the highest peak of the peninsula.
  • The Deccan plateau includes the area to the south of the Vindhyas.
  • The western edge of the plateau rises steeply from the Arabian Sea to form the Western Ghats ( which includes the Shahyadri.)
  • The deccan plateau slopes gently towards the east. The surface of the plateau is dissected into a rolling upland by a number of rivers.
  • The elevation ranges from 300 to 900 metres.
  • The eastern edge of the plateau is known as the Eastern Ghats.
  • The north-western region of the Deccan plateau is covered by nearly horizontal sheets or lava. This region is called ‘Deccan trap regions.’ The Deccan plateau is drained by many long east flowing rivers. These rivers originate in the Western Ghats, flow towards the east and enter the Bay of Bengal.
  • The Godavari, the Mahanadi, the Krishna and the Cauvery are the major rivers that have built deltas along the coast.
  • The Narmada and the Tapti rivers are west flowing.
  • Both the rivers enter the Arabian Sea along the Gujarat coast.
  • These rivers do not have deltas.

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40 Amazing Geography Points Delhi Police 

Major Plateaus

  • Marwar Upland, Central Highland, Bundelkhand, Malwa Plateau, Baghelkhand, Chhotanagpur Plateau ( Hazaribagh Plateau, Ranchi Plateau and Raj Mahal Hills,) Meghalaya Plateau, Deccan Plateau, Maharashra Plateaum, Karnataka Plaeteau, Telengana Plateau, Chhatisgarh Plains.

The Coastal Plains

  • Narrow strips of flat land on eastern and western coasts are known as the east Coastal Plain and the West Coastal Plain respectively.

The West Coastal Plain

  • This plain which lies between the Arbian Sea and the Western Ghats spreads from Gujarat in the north to Kanyankumari in the south.
  • It is broader in the north and narrower in the south. This uneven plain has been dissected by many fast flowing rivers.
  • Its northern part from Gujarat to Goa is called Konkan, while southern part from Goa to Kanyakumari is known as Malabar. Several lagoons (salt water lakes separated from the main sea by sand bars and spits are found on the coastal plain.
  • Important ports developed on its coast from north to south are: Kandla, Mumbai, New Jawahar Port Mumbai, Marmago, Mangalore and Cochin.

The East Coastal Plain

  • This broader coastal plain spreads along the Bay of Bengal from Orissa in the north to Kaynakumari in the south.
  • Its northern part is Northern Circar plains and the southern part is called Coromandal Coast. Rivers like Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishan and Cauvery form deltas on this plain.
  • This coast is famous for rice cultivation.
  • A large number of lagoons are also found here.
  • Chilka and Pulicat lakes are fine examples of lagoons on our east coast.
40 Amazing Geography Points Delhi Police 

The Great Indian Desert

  • It lies to the west of the Aravali range.
  • It extends over major part of Rajasthan and Sindh in Pakistan.
  • This desert does not get much rain as the Aravali range run parallel to the south-western monsoon winds.
  • It is in the rain shadow area of the Bay of Bengal current.
  • Lake Sambhar is found here.

The Island Groups

  • Lakshadweep is a group of 36 coral islands in the Arabian Sea.
  • It is located 300 km to the west of the coast of kerala.
  • Andaman and Nicobar islands are group of about 324 islands.
  • Most of these islands are uninhabited.
  • Andaman and Nicobar islands are separated by the Ten Degree Channel because 10° N altitude passes through this place.

Climatic Diversity in the Indian Subcontinent

  • Due to the vastness of the country and variety of relief features there are regional variations in the climate of India.
  • The interior of the country, especially in the north, has a continental type of climate.
  • The coastal areas have a more equable climate. In mountainous areas, altitude determines the climate. There is a great deal of variation in the amount of annual rainfall.
  • In June, the highest temperature in Rajasthan may go up to 55°C.
  • But, in Drass and  Kargil the night temperature in January may go down to -45°C to -50°C.
  • Mawsynram or Cherrapunji in Meghalaya has an annual rainfall of 2500 cm.
  • But, in the Thar desert the annual rainfall is less than 13 cm.
  • Along the Malabar Coast ( Kerala ) the annual range of temperature is about 3°C.
  • But, it is 20°C in Hissar, Ambala and other parts of the interior.
40 Amazing Geography Points Delhi Police 

Soil Resources of the Indian Sub-continent Soil

  • Soil forms of upper layer of the earth’s crust capable of supporting life.
  • It is made up of loose rock materials and humus.
  • The soil forming processes are mainly influenced by the parent rock climate, vegetation and animal life.

Importance of Soil Resources

  • Soil is an extremely important resource, especially in agricultural countries like Indian, Pakistan and Bangladesh.
  • Most food items, like rice, wheat, pulses, fruits and vegetables and much of our clothing are derived from the soil directly or indirectly.
  • Soil also gives us firewood, timber, rubber, fibers, etc Food like milk ,meat and eggs are obtained in directly from the soil. Flowers, grass, plants and trees are also grown out of soil.

Soil Erosion and its types

  • Removal of top layer of soil when it is exposed to wind and rain, is easily blown or washed away. This condition is known as soil erosion.
  • Basically, soil cover is removed by two powerful agents –

(1) Running water,

(2) Wind.

Types of Soil found in India

  • Indian Council of Agricultural Research ( ICAR) divides AIluvial soils into eight groups : (a) Alluvial Soil (b) Black soil (c) Red Soil (d) Laterites and Lateritic Soil (e) Arid and Desert soil (g) Saline and Alkaline soil (h) Peaty and other organic soil. However, Indian soils are generally divided into four broad types: (1) Alluvial soils; (2) Regur soils; (3) Red soils and (4) Laterite soils.
40 Amazing Geography Points Delhi Police 

Alluvial Soils

  • This is the most important and widespread category. It covers 40% of the land area. In fact the entire Northern Plains are made up of these soils.
  • They have been brought down and deposited by three great Himalayan rivers – Sutlej, Ganga and Brahmaputra and their tributaries.
  • Through a narrow corridor in Rajasthan they extent to the plains of Gujarat.
  • They are common in Eastern coastal plains and in the deltas of Mahanadi Godavari, Krishna and Cauveri.
  • Crops Grown : Suitable for Kharif & Rabi Crops like cereals, Cottons, Oilseeds and sugarcane The lower Ganga – Brahmaputra Valley is useful for jute cultivation.

Regur or Black Soils

  • These soils are of volcanic origin. These soils are black in colour and are also known as black soils.
  • Since, they are ideal for growing cotton, they are also called black cotton soils, in addition to their normal nomenclature of Regur soils.
  • These soils are most typical of the Deccan trap (Basalt) region spreads over north-west Deccan plateau and are made up of lava flows.
  • They cover the plateau of Maharashtra, Saurashtra, Malwa and southern Madhya Pradesh and extend eastward into the south along the Godavari and Krishna Valleys.
  • Crops Grown: Cotton, Jowar, Wheat, Sugarcane,Linseed , Gram, Fruit & Vegetable.

Red Soils

  • Formed by weathering of crystalline and metamorphic. Mixture of clay and sand.
  • These soils are developed on old crystalline Igneous rocks under moderate to heavy rainfall conditions.
  • They are red in colour because of their high Iron-oxide (FeO) content.
  • They are deficient in phosphoric acid, organic maternal and nitrogenous material.
  • Red soils cover the eastern part of the peninsular region comprising Chhotanagpur plateau, Odisha ( Orissa), eastern Chhattisgarh, Telangana, the Nilgiris and Tamil Nadu plateau.
  • They extend northwards in the west along the Konkan coast of Maharashtra.
  • Crops Grown: Wheat, Rice, Millets, Pulses.
40 Amazing Geography Points Delhi Police 

Leterite Soils

  • The Laterite soils are formed due to weathering of lateritic rocks in high temperatures and heavy rainfall with alternate dry and wet period.
  • They are found along the edge of plateau in the east covering small parts of Tamil Nadu, Orissa and a small part of Chhotanagpur in the north and Meghalaya in the north-east.
  • Laterite soils are red in colour with a high content of iron-oxides; poor in Nitrogen and Lime.
  • Crops Grown: Unsuitable for agriculture due to high content of acidity and inability to retain moisture.

Arid & Desert Soil

  • Region: NW India. Covers entire area of the west Aravali in Rajasthan and parts of Haryana, Punjab & Gujarat.
  • Characteristics: Rich in Phosphates and Calcium but deficient in Nitrogen and Humus.
  • Crops Grown: Fertile if irrigated e.g. Ganga Nagar area of Rajasthan (Wheat basket of Rajasthen).

Agriculture In India

  • About 65-70% of the total population of the country is dependent on agriculture.
  • Role of agriculture is paramount in the economy of India.
  • About two-third of our population derives its livelihood from agriculture.
  • It provides food to the second biggest population and the biggest population of cattle in the world.
  • Our agro-based industries are fully dependent on raw material provided by agriculture.
  • Agriculture with its allied activities accounts for 45% of our national income.
40 Amazing Geography Points Delhi Police 

Types of agriculture in India

Subsistence Farming

  • In this type of agriculture, farmers work hard to grow enough food to survive only.
  • In this type of farming the produce is consumed mainly by farmer and his family.
  • There remains no surplus to sell in the market.

Mixed Farming

  • The combination of agriculture and pastoral farming is called mixed farming.
  • In this type of farming, cultivation of crops and rearing of animals are done together on the same farm.

Shifting Cultivation

  • This is a primitive form of agriculture, in which a plot of land is cultivated for a few years and then is deserted.
  • This slash and burn method of farming is carried on in jungles of north-eastern part of India.
  • A plot of land is cleared for cultivation. As the yield decreases after two or three years, the plot is abandoned and a fresh clearing is made.
40 Amazing Geography Points Delhi Police 

Extensive farming

  • This is a system of farming in which the cultivator uses a limited amount of labour and capital on relatively large area.
  • This type of agriculture is practiced in countries where population size is small and land is enough.
  • Here, per acre yield is low but overall production is in surplus due to less population.
  • Agriculture is done with the help of machines.

Intensive Farming

  • This is a system of farming in which the cultivator uses large amount of labour and capital on a relatively small area.
  • In countries where the size of population is big but land is less, this type of faming is done.
  • Annually two or three crops are grown due to the demand of food for the large size of population.
  • Agriculture is done with the help of manual labour.
  • Plantation Agriculture
  • In this type of agriculture, trees or bushes are planted on huge estates.
  • A single crop like rubber, sugarcane, coffee, tea or banana is grown.
  • These crops are major items of export.

Problems of Indian Agriculture

  • The low productivity of our agriculture is mainly due to the difficulties faced by our peasants.
  • Indian agriculture is chiefly of subsistence type where a large manual labour is employed to work on farms to grow just enough food for the needs of the family and very little is left for marketing .
  • A major part of the Indian soil has been impoverished because it has been under plough for the last 4000 or 5000 years.
  • Deforestation, overgrazing and heavy rainfall have led to soil erosion.
  • Divisions of land have led to fragmentation.
  • The size of land holding is very small and uneconomic. These farmers are poor, illiterate and ignorant.
  • They use primitive tools and out-dated method.
  • They lack financial credit and investment.
  • Good seeds, fertilizers and improved technology are not available them.
  • They lack irrigation facilities and are still on the mercy of nature.
  • Most of the farmers have no security against crops failure or loss causes by nature.
  • Generally farmers are uneducated and have no scientific approaches.
40 Amazing Geography Points Delhi Police 

Different Crop Seasons in India

 (1) Rabi (2) Kharif and (3) Zayad.

Rabi

  • This season starts after the rainy season.
  • Swing begins in September – October and harvesting takes place February – March.
  • Rabi season is cooler and drier than the Kharif season.
  • Wheat, barley, pulses and some oil seeds are grown in the Rabi season.

Kharif

  • The kharif season begins with the onset of the monsoons in June-July the retreats of monsoon in September – October, Rice, maize, millets, groundnuts, cotton and Jute are grown in the Kharif season.

Zayad

  • This is the summer season for growing crops which remain in April May and June.
  • Products are mainly vegetables and fruits.
40 Amazing Geography Points Delhi Police 
40 Amazing Geography Points Delhi Police 
40 Amazing Geography Points Delhi Police 

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40 Amazing Geography Points Delhi Police 
40 Amazing Geography Points Delhi Police 

40 Amazing Geography Points Delhi Police 
40 Amazing Geography Points Delhi Police 
40 Amazing Geography Points Delhi Police 
40 Amazing Geography Points Delhi Police 
40 Amazing Geography Points Delhi Police 
40 Amazing Geography Points Delhi Police 

 

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