[GS] [Geography] Solar System, The Sun & The Planets
Members of the Solar System
The Sun is at the centre of the Solar System.
Its size is thirteen lakh times as that of the Earth.
It is the nearest star to the Earth.
It is an ultimate source of energy for life on Earth.
Its diameter is 14 lakh Km.
It is composed of 71% Hydrogen, 26.5% Helium and 2.5% other elements.
Hydrogen and Helium are the main gases present in the Sun.
Within the Sun, hydrogen is converted to Helium due to nuclear fusion releasing a tremendous amount of heat and light.
It has a surface temperature of about 6000°C.
The temperature at the centre is around 15,000,000°C.
Shining surface of the sun is called Photo sphere, it appears like a disc, radiate energy and acts as a source of energy.
The outer layer of sun’s atmosphere made up of thin hot gases is called Corona. Corona is visible only during a total eclipse of the sun (or with a special solar telescope called Corona graph).
The planet travels with the sun through millions of stars in our galaxy at a speed of about 70,000 km per hour.
The Sun is about 150 million Km away from the Earth.
Light (at the speed of 300,000 km per second) takes about 8.5 minutes to reach the Earth from the Sun.
These are opaque bodies which continuously revolve around and are lighted by the Sun.
There are eight planets in the Solar system.
A ninth planet has been recently discovered by NASA named as Carla.
The sequence of planets according to their distance from the Sun is Mercury, Venus, Earth, mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune.
The sequence of planets according to their size (in descending order i.e. form big to small ) is Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Earth, Venus, mars, Mercury.
Jupiter is the biggest and Mercury is the smallest planets of our system.
Classification of Planets
The eight planets have been divided into two groups. All the planets of a particular group have some common feature. ‘Terrestrial planets’ or ‘Rocky planets and ‘Jovian planets’ or ‘Gaseous planets’ (Gas giants) are the two groups of planets.
The four planets nearest to the Sun – Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars are called terrestrial planes because their structure is similar to the earth.
Other four planets – Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune are Jovian planets.
Planets are classified into the following two groups inner and outer planets. These are separated by asteroid belt.
Pluto is a dwarf planet and its new name is 134340.
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