[English Grammar] Active & Passive Voice

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

ACTIVE & PASSIVE VOICE

For better knowledge of Active and Passive voice, First of all we should understand the functions of tenses and their uses.

 Functions

(1) Present Indefinite:

Recognition of Active Voice : do/does/v1/v1+ s or es                                                   (If subject is singular then we add ‘s’ or ‘es’ in the first form of the main verb)

Example : He plays cricket. (Here ‘He’ is singular then we add ‘s’ in ‘play’)

(If subject is plural then we write the first form of the main verb)

Example : We play cricket. (Here ‘We’ is plural then we use the first form of the main verb i.e. play)

Function of Passive Voice : is/are/am + v3

Example : I write a letter. (Active voice)

               A letter is written by me. (Passive voice)

(2) Past Indefinite :

Recognition of Active Voice : did / v2

(If subject is singular or plural then we write the second form of the main verb)

Example : He played cricket. (Here ‘played’ is the second form of the main verb)

Function of Passive Voice : was/were+not+v3

Example : I wrote a letter. (Active voice)

                   A letter was written by me. (Passive voice)

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(3) Future indefinite :

Recognition of Active Voice :  will/shall+v1

If the subjects are I, we then ‘shall’ is used

If the subjects are others except I, we then ‘will’ is used.

Example : I shall give you my book in school.

Note : If there is a compulsion, need or threat in a sentence then …..

If the subjects are I, we then ‘will’ is used

If the subjects are others except I, we then ‘shall’ is used.

Example : I will kill you. (Threat)

Function of Passive Voice : will/shall+be+v3

Example : I will write a letter. (Active voice)

                A letter will be written by me. (Passive voice)

(4) Present continuous :

Recognition of Active Voice :  is/are/am +v1+ing

If subject is singular then we use ‘is’.

If subject is plural then we use ‘are’.

If subject is ‘I’ then we use ‘am’.

Function of Passive Voice : is/are/am +not +being+v3

Example : I am writing a letter. (Active voice)

               A letter is being written by me. (Passive voice)

(5) Past continuous:

Recognition of Active Voice : was/were+v1+ing

If subject is singular then we use ‘was’.

If subject is plural then we use ‘were’.

Function of Passive Voice : was/were+being+v3

Example : I was writing a letter. (Active voice)

               A letter was being written by me. (Passive voice)

(6) Present Perfect :

Recognition of Active Voice : has/have+v3

If subject is singular then we use ‘has’.

If subject is plural then we use ‘have’.

Function of Passive Voice : has/have+been+v3

Example : I have written a letter. (Active voice)

               A letter has been written by me. (Passive voice)

(7) Past perfect :

Recognition of Active Voice : had +v3

(If subject is singular or plural then we write ‘had’ and third form of the main verb)

Function of Passive Voice : had+been+v3

Example : I had written a letter. (Active voice)

               A letter had been written by me. (Passive voice)

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(8) Future perfect :

Recognition of Active Voice : will/shall+have+v3

If the subjects are I, we then ‘shall’ is used

If the subjects are others except I, we then ‘will’ is used.

Example : I shall give you my book in school.

               He will give you my book in school.

Function of Passive Voice : will/shall+have+been+v3

Example : I shall have written a letter. (Active voice)

               A letter will have been written by me. (Passive voice)

(9) Imperative :

These sentences start with v1.

These sentences show request, order, advice and command.

Recognition of Active Voice : v1+object+remaining part

Function of Passive Voice : let+object+be+v3

{You are requested/ ordered/advised+to+v1+object+remaining part }

Example : Please, write a letter. (Active voice)

              You are requested to write a letter. (Passive voice)

(10) Modals:

Recognition of Active Voice : can/could/should/would/may/might/must/ought to+v1

Note : After any one of the above modals, we use the first form of the verb.

Function of Passive Voice : modal+be+v3

Example : You can write a letter. (Active voice)

               A letter can be written by you. (Passive voice)

(11) It is time :

Recognition of Active Voice : These sentences start with ‘It is time’.

Example : It is time to open the shop .

Function of Passive Voice : To + be + v3                                                                Example : It is time for the shop to be opened .

Solved Examples

(1) Active : Darjeeling grows tea.

     Passive : Tea is grown in Darjeeling.

(2) Passive  : He was seen leaving the house by me.

     Active: I saw him leaving the house.

(3) Passive: The clown was being laughed at by them.

     Active: They were laughing at the clown.

(4) Active : Please help me.

     Passive : You are requested to help me.

(5) Active : The residents celebrated the Independence Day.

     Passive : The Independence Day was celebrated by the residents.

(6) Active : I know him.

     Passive : He is known to me.

(7) Passive: A lion may be helped even by a little mouse.

      Active: Even a little mouse may help a lion.

(8) Passive: The bell was not rung by the peon.

      Active: The peon did not ring the bell.

(9) Passive: Let this book be opened at page ten.

      Active: Open this book at page ten.

(10) Passive: By whom was this mistake made?

       Active: Who made this mistake?

(11) Active : They are building a house next door to our school.

       Passive : A house is being built by them next door to      our school.

(12) Active : Who is creating this mess?

       Passive : By whom is this mess being created?

(13) Passive : Is a chair being made by the carpenter?

        Active : Is the carpenter making a chair ?

(14) Active : I saw him leaving the house.

       Passive : He was seen leaving the house by me.

(15) Passive : I was ordered to stay in bed by the doctor.

        Active : The doctor ordered me to stay in bed .

(16) Active : Who taught her such things ?

       Passive : By whom was she taught such things?

(17) Active : The noise of the traffic kept me awake.

       Passive : I was kept awake by the noise of the traffic.

(18) Active : I remember my sister taking me to थे museum.

       Passive : I remember being taken to the museum by my sister.

(19) Passive: The situation cannot be managed by her.

        Active: She cannot manage the situation.

(20) Passive: Let the order be given.

        Active: Give the order.

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