20 Amazing Teaching Theories For CTET

20 Amazing Teaching Theories For CTET
20 Amazing Teaching Theories For CTET

Krashen’s Theory of Second Language Acquisition

This model consists of five main hypothesis:

The Acquisition Learning Hypothesis:

This is the most important of all the hypothesis in Krashen’s theory and the most popular among linguists. According to Krashen, there are two independent systems of second language performance ‘the acquired system’ and ‘the learned system’. ‘The acquired system’ or ‘acquisition’ is a subconscious process in which children acquire their first language.

‘The learned system’ or ‘learning’ comprises a conscious process which results in conscious knowledge about the language for example, knowledge of grammar rules. According to Krashen, learning is less important than acquisition.

20 Amazing Teaching Theories For CTET

The Monitor Hypothesis:

This explains the relationship between acquisition and learning and defines the influence of the latter on the former. The monitoring function is the practical result of the learned grammar. According to Krashen, the acquisition system is the initiator while the learning system performs the role of the monitor or the editor.

The role of the monitor should be minor, being used to correct deviations from normal speech and to give speech a more polished appearance.

The Input Hypothesis:

This attempts to explain how the learner acquires a second language. The input hypothesis is only concerned with ‘acquisition’ and not ‘learning’. The learner improves when he or she receives second language input.

For Example:

If a learner is at a stage I then acquisition takes place when he or she is exposed to comprehensible input that belongs to level i+ 1.

20 Amazing Teaching Theories For CTET

The Natural Order Hypothesis:

This states that learners acquire parts of language in a predictable order. For any given language, certain grammatical structures are acquired early while others are acquired later in the process. This hypothesis suggests that teachers cannot change the order of a grammatical teaching sequence.

The Affective Filter Hypothesis:

According to Krashen, one obstacle that manifests itself during language acquisition is the affective filter that is influenced by emotional variables that can prevent learning.

This filter does not impact acquisition directly but prevents input from reaching the language acquisition part of the brain. Learners need to feel that they are able to make mistakes and take risks. This relates directly to Krashen’s hypothesis of the affective filter.

20 Amazing Teaching Theories For CTET

The Social Educational Model:

This model is developed by R.C Gardener (1982). It is mainly for L2 learning and looks specially of second language acquisition in a classroom, rather than a natural environment. Motivation is defined as the learner’s orientation with regard to the goal of learning a second language.

Motivation is divided into two basic types: integrative and instrumental. Integrative motivation is characterised by the learner’s positive attitudes towards the target language group. Instrumental motivation underlies the goal to gain some social and economic reward through L2 achievement so motivation is very important factor in L2 achievement.

Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach Model:

This is also called CALLA. This is an instructional model that was developed to meet the academic needs of learners learning English as a second language. This model includes 5 steps which are:


Teachers concentrate on specific learner information, by finding out more about their background.


The teacher incorporates the right learning strategies for a specific task.


Learners will practice the strategies with the new information.


The teachers will evaluate how well they worked.


Teachers encourage more practice and wish that all the learners come out of their shortcomings.

20 Amazing Teaching Theories For CTET

Interdependence or Iceberg Hypothesis

This model is developed by Jim Cummins. This model reveals the relationship of the first language to the learning of another language. According to this model, both languages are directly linked to an abstract common system.

In other words, this is a non-linguistic system which can be accessed by the different languages. The two languages are kept separate. Each is spoken in a specific situation.

Jim Cummins differentiates between social and academic language acquisition as

Basic Interpersonal Communications Skills (BICS) and

Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency (CALP).

20 Amazing Teaching Theories For CTET

BICS (Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills):

They are language skills needed in social situations and describes the development of conversational fluency in the second language. It is the day to day language needed to interact socially with other people.

The language required is not specialized. English language learners use these skills when they are in informal settings (playground, in the school bus, at parties and so on)

CALP (Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency):

This refers to formal academic learning. This includes listening, speaking, reading and writing about subject. It includes skills such as comparing, classifying and evaluating.

The language also becomes more cognitive. New ideas, concepts and language are presented to the learners at the same time. Learners need time and support to become proficient.

20 Amazing Teaching Theories For CTET

Stages of learning a Second Language:

The stages are following:

Pre Production:

This is also called ‘the silent period’ when the student takes in the new language but does not speak it. This period often lasts six weeks or longer, depending on the individual. English language learners may have up to 500 words in their vocabulary but they are not yet speaking.

Some learners will repeat everything you say. They are not really producing language but are parroting it. English language learners at this stage, will need much repetition of English.

20 Amazing Teaching Theories For CTET

Early Production:

The learner begins to speak using short words and sentences but the emphasis is still on listening and absorbing the new language. There will be many errors at this stage. This stage may last up to six months and learners will develop a receptive and active vocabulary of about 1000 words.

Speech Emergence:

Speech becomes more frequent, words and sentences are longer. Vocabulary continues to increase and errors begin to decrease. Learners by now have developed a vocabulary of about 3000 words. They will ask simple questions that may or may not be grammatically correct.

20 Amazing Teaching Theories For CTET

Beginning Fluency:

Speech is fairly fluent in social situations but the learners will struggle to express themselves due to gaps in vocabulary.

Intermediate Fluency:

Communicating in the second language is fluent. The learner is able to speak almost fluently in new situations but there will be gaps in vocabulary knowledge. Now learners have developed a vocabulary of 6000 active words. They are beginning to use more complex sentences. At this stage, they will use strategies from their native language to learn in English.

20 Amazing Teaching Theories For CTET

Advanced Fluency:

The learner communicates fluently in all contexts. At this stage, the learner may still have an accent and use idiomatic expressions. It takes learners from 4 to 10 years to achieve cognitive academic language proficiency in a second language.

20 Amazing Teaching Theories For CTET

Download Books, Notes, Test Papers, Sample Papers,

Speed Test Papers in Hindi as well as in English.

20 Amazing Teaching Theories For CTET




Thousands of customers are full satisfied.


Target No-1 Classes

(a unit of )

Executive Makers Pvt. Ltd.

20 Amazing Teaching Theories For CTET

हिस्ट्री हिंदी 




20 Amazing Teaching Theories For CTET

V192 Amazing Social Science Notes

V189 Amazing Class 6th Biology Notes Our Environment NCERT






20 Amazing Teaching Theories For CTET
20 Amazing Teaching Theories For CTET

20 Amazing Teaching Theories For CTET
20 Amazing Teaching Theories For CTET
20 Amazing Teaching Theories For CTET
20 Amazing Teaching Theories For CTET
20 Amazing Teaching Theories For CTET
20 Amazing Teaching Theories For CTET

We are Executive Makers. How can we assist you?

Website Designed and Promoted affordable seo services delhi website designing company in ghaziabad